GitLab 中文文档

Configuration of your jobs with .gitlab-ci.yml 配置构建任务

这篇文档讲述了.gitlab-ci.yml的用法,这个文件被 GitLab Runner用来控制project's jobs流程。

如果你想快速了解 GitLab CI的介绍,可以阅读 GitLab CI快速入门.

.gitlab-ci.yml

从7.12版本开始,GitLab CI使用YAML 文件(.gitlab-ci.yml)来配置project's builds。这个文件存放在仓库根目录,它包含了用来 built该project的配置项。

YAML文件使用一些约束条件定义jobs该何时进行工作。jobs 需定义一个top-level元素,并且 通常至少包含一个script的子句。

job1:
  script: "execute-script-for-job1"

job2:
  script: "execute-script-for-job2"

上面的例子是一个拥有两个独立的job的简单可行的CI配置,每个 job会执行不同的命令。

每个job执行的命令可以执行运行系统命令,如(./configure;make;make install) 或者运行仓库目录里面的脚本文件,如(test.sh)。

Jobs用来创建builds,并由已指派给 project的Runners 在该Runner的系统环境中执行builds。 值得注意的是,每个job都是彼此独立的运行的。

YAML语法允许使用更复杂的规范,例如 下面的例子:

image: ruby:2.1
services:
  - postgres

before_script:
  - bundle install

after_script:
  - rm secrets

stages:
  - build
  - test
  - deploy

job1:
  stage: build
  script:
    - execute-script-for-job1
  only:
    - master
  tags:
    - docker

下面这些关键词 不能 用作job名称:

关键词 必需 描述
image no 使用docker image, 已涵盖在 GitLab CI使用Docker
services no 使用docker services, 已涵盖在 GitLab CI使用Docker
stages no 定义builds阶段
types no stages的别名 (已废弃)
before_script no 定义每个job之前执行的脚本
after_script no 定义每个job之后执行的脚本
variables no 定义build变量
cache no 定义与后续job之间应缓存的文件

image and services

这两个关键词允许指定该job需要使用的自定义的Dokcer images和 Docker services。该功能的配置已涵盖在 GitLab CI与Docker的整合文档中。

before_script

before_script 用来定义应该在所有的jobs开始之前执行的命令, 包括部署任务,但是在artifacts恢复之后, 它可以是一个数组或者multi-line(多行)字符串。

after_script

该功能自GitLab 8.7引入,并依赖GitLab Runner v1.2。

after_script 用来定义在所有的builds完成之后执行的命令, 它也可以是一个数组或者multi-line(多行)字符串。

Note: The before_script and the main script are concatenated and run in a single context/container. The after_script is run separately, so depending on the executor, changes done outside of the working tree might not be visible, e.g. software installed in the before_script.

stages

stages 在jobs中可以用来定义build的各个阶段, stages 的规范允许灵活的使用多个stage pipelines。

stages中各元素的顺序决定了jobs的执行顺序:

  1. 同一个stage中的元素将并行Builds。
  2. 下一个stage将在上一个stage中所有元素 成功完成后再继续执行job。

我们思考下下面的例子,定义了哪3个stages:

stages:
  - build
  - test
  - deploy
  1. 首先 build 中的jobs将并行执行。
  2. 如果 build 中的jobs都成功执行了, test 中的jobs将并行执行.
  3. 如果 test 中的jobs都成功执行了, deploy 中的jobs将并行执行.
  4. 如果 deploy 中的jobs都成功完成, 该条 commit 将标记为 success.
  5. 如果前面任意一个jobs执行失败,该条 commit 将标记为 failed,并且 下一步的stage中的jobs不会继续下去。

还有值得一提的两个边缘情况:

  1. 如未在.gitlab-ci.yml中定义任何stages,默认情况下build, test and deploy 允许作为预设的任务 stage,即stage名为build,test,deploy.
  2. 如果一个job没有指定stage,该任务会给指派为test stage。

types

已废弃,并将在未来的版本移除该关键字,代替它的是 stages

Alias for stages.

variables

该功能自GitLab Runner v0.5.0中引入。

GitLab CI允许在 .gitlab-ci.yml 里面添加变量以便应用到job系统环境中。 变量存储在git仓库中并用于存储non-sensitive(非敏感)的project配置, 如下面的例子:

variables:
  DATABASE_URL: "postgres://postgres@postgres/my_database"

Note: Integers (as well as strings) are legal both for variable's name and value. Floats are not legal and cannot be used.

这个变量可延迟作用于所有已执行的命令和脚本中。 同时通过YAML定义的变量也会设置所有的服务容器, 因此允许微调这些服务容器。 job level也可以定义变量。

Except for the user defined variables, there are also the ones set up by the Runner itself. One example would be CI_COMMIT_REF_NAME which has the value of the branch or tag name for which project is built. Apart from the variables you can set in .gitlab-ci.yml, there are also the so called secret variables which can be set in GitLab's UI.

Learn more about variables.

cache

Notes:

  • GitLab Runner v0.7.0 引入该功能。
  • Prior to GitLab 9.2, caches were restored after artifacts.
  • From GitLab 9.2, caches are restored before artifacts.

chche 用来指定需要在 builds 之间进行缓存的一组文件、文件夹。 你可以只使用project workspace里面的路径。

By default caching is enabled and shared between pipelines and jobs, starting from GitLab 9.0

If cache is defined outside the scope of jobs, it means it is set globally and all jobs will use that definition.

缓存binaries 目录下的文件和.config文件:

rspec:
  script: test
  cache:
    paths:
    - binaries/
    - .config

缓存所有未被Git跟踪的文件:

rspec:
  script: test
  cache:
    untracked: true

缓存所有未被Git跟踪的文件以及binaries目录下的文件:

rspec:
  script: test
  cache:
    untracked: true
    paths:
    - binaries/

Locally defined cache overrides globally defined options. The following rspec job will cache only binaries/:

cache:
  paths:
  - my/files

rspec:
  script: test
  cache:
    key: rspec
    paths:
    - binaries/

Note that since cache is shared between jobs, if you're using different paths for different jobs, you should also set a different cache:key otherwise cache content can be overwritten.

The cache is provided on a best-effort basis, so don't expect that the cache will be always present. For implementation details, please check GitLab Runner.

cache:key

该功能自 GitLab Runner v1.0.0引入。

这个 key 指令允许定义jobs之间缓存的亲和力, 允许所有的jobs只有单个缓存,也可以是每个per-job caching、 per-branch caching,或者其他你认为合适的方法。

key允许你对缓存进行微调, 也允许在不同Jobs设置不同brances之间缓存数据。

cache:key变量可以使用任何预定义变量

The default key is default across the project, therefore everything is shared between each pipelines and jobs by default, starting from GitLab 9.0.

Note: The cache:key variable cannot contain the / character.


Example configurations

启用 per-job caching:

cache:
  key: "$CI_JOB_NAME"
  untracked: true

启用 per-branch caching:

cache:
  key: "$CI_COMMIT_REF_NAME"
  untracked: true

启用 per-job and per-branch caching:

cache:
  key: "$CI_JOB_NAME-$CI_COMMIT_REF_NAME"
  untracked: true

启用 per-branch and per-stage caching:

cache:
  key: "$CI_JOB_STAGE-$CI_COMMIT_REF_NAME"
  untracked: true

如果你用的是 Windows Batch Windows批处理运行shell scripts, 需要把$替换为%

cache:
  key: "%CI_JOB_STAGE%-%CI_COMMIT_REF_NAME%"
  untracked: true

If you use Windows PowerShell to run your shell scripts you need to replace $ with $env::

cache:
  key: "$env:CI_JOB_STAGE-$env:CI_COMMIT_REF_NAME"
  untracked: true

cache:policy

Introduced in GitLab 9.4.

The default behaviour of a caching job is to download the files at the start of execution, and to re-upload them at the end. This allows any changes made by the job to be persisted for future runs, and is known as the pull-push cache policy.

If you know the job doesn't alter the cached files, you can skip the upload step by setting policy: pull in the job specification. Typically, this would be twinned with an ordinary cache job at an earlier stage to ensure the cache is updated from time to time:

stages:
  - setup
  - test

prepare:
  stage: setup
  cache:
    key: gems
    paths:
      - vendor/bundle
  script:
    - bundle install --deployment

rspec:
  stage: test
  cache:
    key: gems
    paths:
      - vendor/bundle
    policy: pull
  script:
    - bundle exec rspec ...

This helps to speed up job execution and reduce load on the cache server, especially when you have a large number of cache-using jobs executing in parallel.

Additionally, if you have a job that unconditionally recreates the cache without reference to its previous contents, you can use policy: push in that job to skip the download step.

Jobs

.gitlab-ci.yml allows you to specify an unlimited number of jobs. Each job must have a unique name, which is not one of the keywords mentioned above. A job is defined by a list of parameters that define the job behavior.

job_name:
  script:
    - rake spec
    - coverage
  stage: test
  only:
    - master
  except:
    - develop
  tags:
    - ruby
    - postgres
  allow_failure: true
Keyword Required Description
script yes Defines a shell script which is executed by Runner
image no Use docker image, covered in Using Docker Images
services no Use docker services, covered in Using Docker Images
stage no Defines a job stage (default: test)
type no Alias for stage
variables no Define job variables on a job level
only no Defines a list of git refs for which job is created
except no Defines a list of git refs for which job is not created
tags no Defines a list of tags which are used to select Runner
allow_failure no Allow job to fail. Failed job doesn't contribute to commit status
when no Define when to run job. Can be on_success, on_failure, always or manual
dependencies no Define other jobs that a job depends on so that you can pass artifacts between them
artifacts no Define list of job artifacts
cache no Define list of files that should be cached between subsequent runs
before_script no Override a set of commands that are executed before job
after_script no Override a set of commands that are executed after job
environment no Defines a name of environment to which deployment is done by this job
coverage no Define code coverage settings for a given job
retry no Define how many times a job can be auto-retried in case of a failure

script

script is a shell script which is executed by the Runner. For example:

job:
  script: "bundle exec rspec"

This parameter can also contain several commands using an array:

job:
  script:
    - uname -a
    - bundle exec rspec

Sometimes, script commands will need to be wrapped in single or double quotes. For example, commands that contain a colon (:) need to be wrapped in quotes so that the YAML parser knows to interpret the whole thing as a string rather than a "key: value" pair. Be careful when using special characters: :, {, }, [, ], ,, &, *, #, ?, |, -, <, >, =, !, %, @, `.

stage

stage allows to group jobs into different stages. Jobs of the same stage are executed in parallel. For more info about the use of stage please check stages.

only and except (simplified)

only and except are two parameters that set a job policy to limit when jobs are created:

  1. only defines the names of branches and tags for which the job will run.
  2. except defines the names of branches and tags for which the job will not run.

There are a few rules that apply to the usage of job policy:

In addition, only and except allow the use of special keywords:

Value Description
branches When a branch is pushed.
tags When a tag is pushed.
api When pipeline has been triggered by a second pipelines API (not triggers API).
external When using CI services other than GitLab.
pipelines For multi-project triggers, created using the API with CI_JOB_TOKEN.
pushes Pipeline is triggered by a git push by the user.
schedules For scheduled pipelines.
triggers For pipelines created using a trigger token.
web For pipelines created using Run pipeline button in GitLab UI (under your project's Pipelines).

In the example below, job will run only for refs that start with issue-, whereas all branches will be skipped:

job:
  # use regexp
  only:
    - /^issue-.*$/
  # use special keyword
  except:
    - branches

In this example, job will run only for refs that are tagged, or if a build is explicitly requested via an API trigger or a Pipeline Schedule:

job:
  # use special keywords
  only:
    - tags
    - triggers
    - schedules

The repository path can be used to have jobs executed only for the parent repository and not forks:

job:
  only:
    - branches@gitlab-org/gitlab-ce
  except:
    - master@gitlab-org/gitlab-ce

The above example will run job for all branches on gitlab-org/gitlab-ce, except master.

only and except (complex)

Introduced in GitLab 10.0

This an alpha feature, and it it subject to change at any time without prior notice!

Since GitLab 10.0 it is possible to define a more elaborate only/except job policy configuration.

GitLab now supports both, simple and complex strategies, so it is possible to use an array and a hash configuration scheme.

Two keys are now available: refs and kubernetes. Refs strategy equals to simplified only/except configuration, whereas kubernetes strategy accepts only active keyword.

See the example below. Job is going to be created only when pipeline has been scheduled or runs for a master branch, and only if kubernetes service is active in the project.

job:
  only:
    refs:
      - master
      - schedules
    kubernetes: active

Job variables

It is possible to define job variables using a variables keyword on a job level. It works basically the same way as its global-level equivalent, but allows you to define job-specific variables.

When the variables keyword is used on a job level, it overrides the global YAML job variables and predefined ones. To turn off global defined variables in your job, define an empty hash:

job_name:
  variables: {}

Job variables priority is defined in the variables documentation.

tags

tags is used to select specific Runners from the list of all Runners that are allowed to run this project.

During the registration of a Runner, you can specify the Runner's tags, for example ruby, postgres, development.

tags allow you to run jobs with Runners that have the specified tags assigned to them:

job:
  tags:
    - ruby
    - postgres

The specification above, will make sure that job is built by a Runner that has both ruby AND postgres tags defined.

allow_failure

allow_failure is used when you want to allow a job to fail without impacting the rest of the CI suite. Failed jobs don't contribute to the commit status.

When enabled and the job fails, the pipeline will be successful/green for all intents and purposes, but a "CI build passed with warnings" message will be displayed on the merge request or commit or job page. This is to be used by jobs that are allowed to fail, but where failure indicates some other (manual) steps should be taken elsewhere.

In the example below, job1 and job2 will run in parallel, but if job1 fails, it will not stop the next stage from running, since it's marked with allow_failure: true:

job1:
  stage: test
  script:
  - execute_script_that_will_fail
  allow_failure: true

job2:
  stage: test
  script:
  - execute_script_that_will_succeed

job3:
  stage: deploy
  script:
  - deploy_to_staging

when

when is used to implement jobs that are run in case of failure or despite the failure.

when can be set to one of the following values:

  1. on_success - execute job only when all jobs from prior stages succeed. This is the default.
  2. on_failure - execute job only when at least one job from prior stages fails.
  3. always - execute job regardless of the status of jobs from prior stages.
  4. manual - execute job manually (added in GitLab 8.10). Read about manual actions below.

For example:

stages:
- build
- cleanup_build
- test
- deploy
- cleanup

build_job:
  stage: build
  script:
  - make build

cleanup_build_job:
  stage: cleanup_build
  script:
  - cleanup build when failed
  when: on_failure

test_job:
  stage: test
  script:
  - make test

deploy_job:
  stage: deploy
  script:
  - make deploy
  when: manual

cleanup_job:
  stage: cleanup
  script:
  - cleanup after jobs
  when: always

The above script will:

  1. Execute cleanup_build_job only when build_job fails.
  2. Always execute cleanup_job as the last step in pipeline regardless of success or failure.
  3. Allow you to manually execute deploy_job from GitLab's UI.

Manual actions

Introduced in GitLab 8.10. Blocking manual actions were introduced in GitLab 9.0 Protected actions were introduced in GitLab 9.2

Manual actions are a special type of job that are not executed automatically; they need to be explicitly started by a user. Manual actions can be started from pipeline, build, environment, and deployment views.

An example usage of manual actions is deployment to production.

Read more at the environments documentation.

Manual actions can be either optional or blocking. Blocking manual action will block execution of the pipeline at stage this action is defined in. It is possible to resume execution of the pipeline when someone executes a blocking manual actions by clicking a play button.

When pipeline is blocked it will not be merged if Merge When Pipeline Succeeds is set. Blocked pipelines also do have a special status, called manual.

Manual actions are non-blocking by default. If you want to make manual action blocking, it is necessary to add allow_failure: false to the job's definition in .gitlab-ci.yml.

Optional manual actions have allow_failure: true set by default.

Statuses of optional actions do not contribute to overall pipeline status.

Manual actions are considered to be write actions, so permissions for protected branches are used when user wants to trigger an action. In other words, in order to trigger a manual action assigned to a branch that the pipeline is running for, user needs to have ability to merge to this branch.

environment

Notes:

environment is used to define that a job deploys to a specific environment. If environment is specified and no environment under that name exists, a new one will be created automatically.

In its simplest form, the environment keyword can be defined like:

deploy to production:
  stage: deploy
  script: git push production HEAD:master
  environment:
    name: production

In the above example, the deploy to production job will be marked as doing a deployment to the production environment.

environment:name

Notes:

  • Introduced in GitLab 8.11.
  • Before GitLab 8.11, the name of an environment could be defined as a string like environment: production. The recommended way now is to define it under the name keyword.
  • The name parameter can use any of the defined CI variables, including predefined, secure variables and .gitlab-ci.yml variables. You however cannot use variables defined under script.

The environment name can contain:

Common names are qa, staging, and production, but you can use whatever name works with your workflow.

Instead of defining the name of the environment right after the environment keyword, it is also possible to define it as a separate value. For that, use the name keyword under environment:

deploy to production:
  stage: deploy
  script: git push production HEAD:master
  environment:
    name: production

environment:url

Notes:

  • Introduced in GitLab 8.11.
  • Before GitLab 8.11, the URL could be added only in GitLab's UI. The recommended way now is to define it in .gitlab-ci.yml.
  • The url parameter can use any of the defined CI variables, including predefined, secure variables and .gitlab-ci.yml variables. You however cannot use variables defined under script.

This is an optional value that when set, it exposes buttons in various places in GitLab which when clicked take you to the defined URL.

In the example below, if the job finishes successfully, it will create buttons in the merge requests and in the environments/deployments pages which will point to https://prod.example.com.

deploy to production:
  stage: deploy
  script: git push production HEAD:master
  environment:
    name: production
    url: https://prod.example.com

environment:on_stop

Notes:

  • Introduced in GitLab 8.13.
  • Starting with GitLab 8.14, when you have an environment that has a stop action defined, GitLab will automatically trigger a stop action when the associated branch is deleted.

Closing (stoping) environments can be achieved with the on_stop keyword defined under environment. It declares a different job that runs in order to close the environment.

Read the environment:action section for an example.

environment:action

Introduced in GitLab 8.13.

The action keyword is to be used in conjunction with on_stop and is defined in the job that is called to close the environment.

Take for instance:

review_app:
  stage: deploy
  script: make deploy-app
  environment:
    name: review
    on_stop: stop_review_app

stop_review_app:
  stage: deploy
  script: make delete-app
  when: manual
  environment:
    name: review
    action: stop

In the above example we set up the review_app job to deploy to the review environment, and we also defined a new stop_review_app job under on_stop. Once the review_app job is successfully finished, it will trigger the stop_review_app job based on what is defined under when. In this case we set it up to manual so it will need a manual action via GitLab's web interface in order to run.

The stop_review_app job is required to have the following keywords defined:

dynamic environments

Notes:

  • Introduced in GitLab 8.12 and GitLab Runner 1.6.
  • The $CI_ENVIRONMENT_SLUG was introduced in GitLab 8.15.
  • The name and url parameters can use any of the defined CI variables, including predefined, secure variables and .gitlab-ci.yml variables. You however cannot use variables defined under script.

For example:

deploy as review app:
  stage: deploy
  script: make deploy
  environment:
    name: review/$CI_COMMIT_REF_NAME
    url: https://$CI_ENVIRONMENT_SLUG.example.com/

The deploy as review app job will be marked as deployment to dynamically create the review/$CI_COMMIT_REF_NAME environment, where $CI_COMMIT_REF_NAME is an environment variable set by the Runner. The $CI_ENVIRONMENT_SLUG variable is based on the environment name, but suitable for inclusion in URLs. In this case, if the deploy as review app job was run in a branch named pow, this environment would be accessible with an URL like https://review-pow.example.com/.

This of course implies that the underlying server which hosts the application is properly configured.

The common use case is to create dynamic environments for branches and use them as Review Apps. You can see a simple example using Review Apps at https://gitlab.com/gitlab-examples/review-apps-nginx/.

artifacts

Notes:

  • Introduced in GitLab Runner v0.7.0 for non-Windows platforms.
  • Windows support was added in GitLab Runner v.1.0.0.
  • Prior to GitLab 9.2, caches were restored after artifacts.
  • From GitLab 9.2, caches are restored before artifacts.
  • Currently not all executors are supported.
  • Job artifacts are only collected for successful jobs by default.

artifacts is used to specify a list of files and directories which should be attached to the job after success. You can only use paths that are within the project workspace. To pass artifacts between different jobs, see dependencies. Below are some examples.

Send all files in binaries and .config:

artifacts:
  paths:
  - binaries/
  - .config

Send all Git untracked files:

artifacts:
  untracked: true

Send all Git untracked files and files in binaries:

artifacts:
  untracked: true
  paths:
  - binaries/

To disable artifact passing, define the job with empty dependencies:

job:
  stage: build
  script: make build
  dependencies: []

You may want to create artifacts only for tagged releases to avoid filling the build server storage with temporary build artifacts.

Create artifacts only for tags (default-job will not create artifacts):

default-job:
  script:
    - mvn test -U
  except:
    - tags

release-job:
  script:
    - mvn package -U
  artifacts:
    paths:
    - target/*.war
  only:
    - tags

The artifacts will be sent to GitLab after the job finishes successfully and will be available for download in the GitLab UI.

artifacts:name

Introduced in GitLab 8.6 and GitLab Runner v1.1.0.

The name directive allows you to define the name of the created artifacts archive. That way, you can have a unique name for every archive which could be useful when you'd like to download the archive from GitLab. The artifacts:name variable can make use of any of the predefined variables. The default name is artifacts, which becomes artifacts.zip when downloaded.


Example configurations

To create an archive with a name of the current job:

job:
  artifacts:
    name: "$CI_JOB_NAME"

To create an archive with a name of the current branch or tag including only the files that are untracked by Git:

job:
   artifacts:
     name: "$CI_COMMIT_REF_NAME"
     untracked: true

To create an archive with a name of the current job and the current branch or tag including only the files that are untracked by Git:

job:
  artifacts:
    name: "${CI_JOB_NAME}_${CI_COMMIT_REF_NAME}"
    untracked: true

To create an archive with a name of the current stage and branch name:

job:
  artifacts:
    name: "${CI_JOB_STAGE}_${CI_COMMIT_REF_NAME}"
    untracked: true

If you use Windows Batch to run your shell scripts you need to replace $ with %:

job:
  artifacts:
    name: "%CI_JOB_STAGE%_%CI_COMMIT_REF_NAME%"
    untracked: true

If you use Windows PowerShell to run your shell scripts you need to replace $ with $env::

job:
  artifacts:
    name: "$env:CI_JOB_STAGE_$env:CI_COMMIT_REF_NAME"
    untracked: true

artifacts:when

Introduced in GitLab 8.9 and GitLab Runner v1.3.0.

artifacts:when is used to upload artifacts on job failure or despite the failure.

artifacts:when can be set to one of the following values:

  1. on_success - upload artifacts only when the job succeeds. This is the default.
  2. on_failure - upload artifacts only when the job fails.
  3. always - upload artifacts regardless of the job status.

Example configurations

To upload artifacts only when job fails.

job:
  artifacts:
    when: on_failure

artifacts:expire_in

Introduced in GitLab 8.9 and GitLab Runner v1.3.0.

artifacts:expire_in is used to delete uploaded artifacts after the specified time. By default, artifacts are stored on GitLab forever. expire_in allows you to specify how long artifacts should live before they expire, counting from the time they are uploaded and stored on GitLab.

You can use the Keep button on the job page to override expiration and keep artifacts forever.

After expiry, artifacts are actually deleted hourly by default (via a cron job), but they are not accessible after expiry.

The value of expire_in is an elapsed time. Examples of parseable values:


Example configurations

To expire artifacts 1 week after being uploaded:

job:
  artifacts:
    expire_in: 1 week

dependencies

Introduced in GitLab 8.6 and GitLab Runner v1.1.1.

This feature should be used in conjunction with artifacts and allows you to define the artifacts to pass between different jobs.

Note that artifacts from all previous stages are passed by default.

To use this feature, define dependencies in context of the job and pass a list of all previous jobs from which the artifacts should be downloaded. You can only define jobs from stages that are executed before the current one. An error will be shown if you define jobs from the current stage or next ones. Defining an empty array will skip downloading any artifacts for that job. The status of the previous job is not considered when using dependencies, so if it failed or it is a manual job that was not run, no error occurs.


In the following example, we define two jobs with artifacts, build:osx and build:linux. When the test:osx is executed, the artifacts from build:osx will be downloaded and extracted in the context of the build. The same happens for test:linux and artifacts from build:linux.

The job deploy will download artifacts from all previous jobs because of the stage precedence:

build:osx:
  stage: build
  script: make build:osx
  artifacts:
    paths:
    - binaries/

build:linux:
  stage: build
  script: make build:linux
  artifacts:
    paths:
    - binaries/

test:osx:
  stage: test
  script: make test:osx
  dependencies:
  - build:osx

test:linux:
  stage: test
  script: make test:linux
  dependencies:
  - build:linux

deploy:
  stage: deploy
  script: make deploy

When a dependent job will fail

Introduced in GitLab 10.3.

If the artifacts of the job that is set as a dependency have been expired or erased, then the dependent job will fail.

Note: You can ask your administrator to flip this switch and bring back the old behavior.

before_script and after_script

It's possible to overwrite the globally defined before_script and after_script:

before_script:
- global before script

job:
  before_script:
  - execute this instead of global before script
  script:
  - my command
  after_script:
  - execute this after my script

coverage

Notes:

coverage allows you to configure how code coverage will be extracted from the job output.

Regular expressions are the only valid kind of value expected here. So, using surrounding / is mandatory in order to consistently and explicitly represent a regular expression string. You must escape special characters if you want to match them literally.

A simple example:

job1:
  script: rspec
  coverage: '/Code coverage: \d+\.\d+/'

retry

Notes:

retry allows you to configure how many times a job is going to be retried in case of a failure.

When a job fails, and has retry configured it is going to be processed again up to the amount of times specified by the retry keyword.

If retry is set to 2, and a job succeeds in a second run (first retry), it won't be retried again. retry value has to be a positive integer, equal or larger than 0, but lower or equal to 2 (two retries maximum, three runs in total).

A simple example:

test:
  script: rspec
  retry: 2

Git Strategy

Introduced in GitLab 8.9 as an experimental feature. May change or be removed completely in future releases. GIT_STRATEGY=none requires GitLab Runner v1.7+.

You can set the GIT_STRATEGY used for getting recent application code, either in the global variables section or the variables section for individual jobs. If left unspecified, the default from project settings will be used.

There are three possible values: clone, fetch, and none.

clone is the slowest option. It clones the repository from scratch for every job, ensuring that the project workspace is always pristine.

variables:
  GIT_STRATEGY: clone

fetch is faster as it re-uses the project workspace (falling back to clone if it doesn't exist). git clean is used to undo any changes made by the last job, and git fetch is used to retrieve commits made since the last job ran.

variables:
  GIT_STRATEGY: fetch

none also re-uses the project workspace, but skips all Git operations (including GitLab Runner's pre-clone script, if present). It is mostly useful for jobs that operate exclusively on artifacts (e.g., deploy). Git repository data may be present, but it is certain to be out of date, so you should only rely on files brought into the project workspace from cache or artifacts.

variables:
  GIT_STRATEGY: none

Git Checkout

Introduced in GitLab Runner 9.3

The GIT_CHECKOUT variable can be used when the GIT_STRATEGY is set to either clone or fetch to specify whether a git checkout should be run. If not specified, it defaults to true. Like GIT_STRATEGY, it can be set in either the global variables section or the variables section for individual jobs.

If set to false, the Runner will:

Having this setting set to true will mean that for both clone and fetch strategies the Runner will checkout the working copy to a revision related to the CI pipeline:

variables:
  GIT_STRATEGY: clone
  GIT_CHECKOUT: false
script:
  - git checkout master
  - git merge $CI_BUILD_REF_NAME

Git Submodule Strategy

Requires GitLab Runner v1.10+.

The GIT_SUBMODULE_STRATEGY variable is used to control if / how Git submodules are included when fetching the code before a build. Like GIT_STRATEGY, it can be set in either the global variables section or the variables section for individual jobs.

There are three possible values: none, normal, and recursive:

Note that for this feature to work correctly, the submodules must be configured (in .gitmodules) with either:

Job stages attempts

Introduced in GitLab, it requires GitLab Runner v1.9+.

You can set the number for attempts the running job will try to execute each of the following stages:

Variable Description
GET_SOURCES_ATTEMPTS Number of attempts to fetch sources running a job
ARTIFACT_DOWNLOAD_ATTEMPTS Number of attempts to download artifacts running a job
RESTORE_CACHE_ATTEMPTS Number of attempts to restore the cache running a job

The default is one single attempt.

Example:

variables:
  GET_SOURCES_ATTEMPTS: 3

You can set them in the global variables section or the variables section for individual jobs.

Shallow cloning

Introduced in GitLab 8.9 as an experimental feature. May change in future releases or be removed completely.

You can specify the depth of fetching and cloning using GIT_DEPTH. This allows shallow cloning of the repository which can significantly speed up cloning for repositories with a large number of commits or old, large binaries. The value is passed to git fetch and git clone.

Note: If you use a depth of 1 and have a queue of jobs or retry jobs, jobs may fail.

Since Git fetching and cloning is based on a ref, such as a branch name, Runners can't clone a specific commit SHA. If there are multiple jobs in the queue, or you are retrying an old job, the commit to be tested needs to be within the Git history that is cloned. Setting too small a value for GIT_DEPTH can make it impossible to run these old commits. You will see unresolved reference in job logs. You should then reconsider changing GIT_DEPTH to a higher value.

Jobs that rely on git describe may not work correctly when GIT_DEPTH is set since only part of the Git history is present.

To fetch or clone only the last 3 commits:

variables:
  GIT_DEPTH: "3"

Hidden keys (jobs)

Introduced in GitLab 8.6 and GitLab Runner v1.1.1.

If you want to temporarily 'disable' a job, rather than commenting out all the lines where the job is defined:

#hidden_job:
#  script:
#    - run test

you can instead start its name with a dot (.) and it will not be processed by GitLab CI. In the following example, .hidden_job will be ignored:

.hidden_job:
  script:
    - run test

Use this feature to ignore jobs, or use the special YAML features and transform the hidden keys into templates.

Special YAML features

It's possible to use special YAML features like anchors (&), aliases (*) and map merging (<<), which will allow you to greatly reduce the complexity of .gitlab-ci.yml.

Read more about the various YAML features.

Anchors

Introduced in GitLab 8.6 and GitLab Runner v1.1.1.

YAML has a handy feature called 'anchors', which lets you easily duplicate content across your document. Anchors can be used to duplicate/inherit properties, and is a perfect example to be used with hidden keys to provide templates for your jobs.

The following example uses anchors and map merging. It will create two jobs, test1 and test2, that will inherit the parameters of .job_template, each having their own custom script defined:

.job_template: &job_definition  # Hidden key that defines an anchor named 'job_definition'
  image: ruby:2.1
  services:
    - postgres
    - redis

test1:
  <<: *job_definition           # Merge the contents of the 'job_definition' alias
  script:
    - test1 project

test2:
  <<: *job_definition           # Merge the contents of the 'job_definition' alias
  script:
    - test2 project

& sets up the name of the anchor (job_definition), << means "merge the given hash into the current one", and * includes the named anchor (job_definition again). The expanded version looks like this:

.job_template:
  image: ruby:2.1
  services:
    - postgres
    - redis

test1:
  image: ruby:2.1
  services:
    - postgres
    - redis
  script:
    - test1 project

test2:
  image: ruby:2.1
  services:
    - postgres
    - redis
  script:
    - test2 project

Let's see another one example. This time we will use anchors to define two sets of services. This will create two jobs, test:postgres and test:mysql, that will share the script directive defined in .job_template, and the services directive defined in .postgres_services and .mysql_services respectively:

.job_template: &job_definition
  script:
    - test project

.postgres_services:
  services: &postgres_definition
    - postgres
    - ruby

.mysql_services:
  services: &mysql_definition
    - mysql
    - ruby

test:postgres:
  <<: *job_definition
  services: *postgres_definition

test:mysql:
  <<: *job_definition
  services: *mysql_definition

The expanded version looks like this:

.job_template:
  script:
    - test project

.postgres_services:
  services:
    - postgres
    - ruby

.mysql_services:
  services:
    - mysql
    - ruby

test:postgres:
  script:
    - test project
  services:
    - postgres
    - ruby

test:mysql:
  script:
    - test project
  services:
    - mysql
    - ruby

You can see that the hidden keys are conveniently used as templates.

Triggers

Triggers can be used to force a rebuild of a specific branch, tag or commit, with an API call.

Read more in the triggers documentation.

pages

pages is a special job that is used to upload static content to GitLab that can be used to serve your website. It has a special syntax, so the two requirements below must be met:

  1. Any static content must be placed under a public/ directory
  2. artifacts with a path to the public/ directory must be defined

The example below simply moves all files from the root of the project to the public/ directory. The .public workaround is so cp doesn't also copy public/ to itself in an infinite loop:

pages:
  stage: deploy
  script:
  - mkdir .public
  - cp -r * .public
  - mv .public public
  artifacts:
    paths:
    - public
  only:
  - master

Read more on GitLab Pages user documentation.

Validate the .gitlab-ci.yml

Each instance of GitLab CI has an embedded debug tool called Lint. You can find the link under /ci/lint of your gitlab instance.

Using reserved keywords

If you get validation error when using specific values (e.g., true or false), try to quote them, or change them to a different form (e.g., /bin/true).

Skipping jobs

If your commit message contains [ci skip] or [skip ci], using any capitalization, the commit will be created but the jobs will be skipped.

Examples

Visit the examples README to see a list of examples using GitLab CI with various languages.